Childhood refers to the period in a person's life from birth to sexual development (puberty). The definition of childhood in terms of content refers less to a biological phase of life - its meaning is determined primarily by culture and society. In developmental psychology, childhood follows infancy (ages 2 and 3) and is divided into early childhood (ages 4 to 6), middle childhood (ages 7 to 10), and late childhood (ages 11 to 14). Childhood is followed by the adolescence phase.

In developmental psychology, developmental stages are often associated with the idea of developmental tasks. These are tasks that children (people) have to work on and solve according to their age, in order to be able to cope with a social existence in the next higher stage. Age levels have their corresponding developmental tasks, which have to be worked on for everyone.