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The domestic horse (Equus caballus) is a widespread domestic or farm animal that exists in numerous breeds throughout the world.

The domestic horse is the domesticated form of the wild horse, which, with the donkeys and zebras, forms the family of horses (equidae) within the order of odd-toed ungulates (Perissodactyla).

The appearance of the domestic horse varies in build, body size, coat and color. Depending on the purpose for which horses are bred, their types are divided into so-called cold-blooded, warm-blooded, thoroughbred, half-blooded and ponies. The designations cold-blooded, warm-blooded and thoroughbred are not based on the warmth or even quantity of the horse's blood, but rather designate the predominant temperament of the respective horse type. For example, cold-blooded horses generally tend to react calmly and with little jumpiness, while Thoroughbreds are considered more nervous and easily excited.

Horses are toe-walkers, walking on the third, middle toe alone. The remaining toes are receded and preserved on the skeleton of the foreleg as rudimentary grip legs. Because the eyes are located on the side of the head, horses can see almost all around (350°), but have poor spatial vision. However, they do not notice what is exactly in front of their nose or behind them until they turn their head. Horses are not color blind, but they cannot distinguish all colors. Horses can't tell brown, green and gray apart - but they see colors like white, red, yellow and blue very well. Horses see better in the dark than humans, but take longer to adjust to rapid changes in light and dark.

The horse's hearing is very fine. Each auricle can be rotated 180°, which enables the horse to adjust its ears so that it can hear specifically in all directions.